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Launched: 2020
Record Updated: Apr 17, 2024
Authoring tool

2i2c designs, develops, and operates interactive computing environments that facilitate workflows for open science and education in the cloud. It builds its services on open infrastructure and enhances its service via upstream contributions and support. It runs the service as a collaboration with communities based on shared responsibility and with infrastructure that ensures a community's Right to Replicate the infrastructure without 2i2c.


Our mission is to make research and education more impactful, accessible, and delightful by developing, operating, and supporting infrastructure for interactive computing.

Key Achievements

  1. In 2.5 years we've grown our service to around 4000 active weekly users across more than 50 communities served from both research and education. (
  2. We recover roughly 50% of our operational costs through ongoing service fees, with intention to refine and grow this service model to reach full sustainability on fees alone. (see for a work-in-progress dashboard on this)
  3. We are averaging around 15 merged PRs each week across the Jupyter ecosystem (

Technical Attributes

Open Code Repository


Maintenance Status

Actively maintained

Technical Documentation


Open Product Roadmap

In Progress

Content Licensing

This page has our licensing policy:

Our Right to Replicate describes the principles we follow in how we choose to design the infrastructure and service model:

Hosting Options & Service Providers

Hosting Strategy

Not applicable

What other tools and projects does your project interact with?

Cloud S3 storage Kubernetes layers in major commercial cloud providers GitHub

Community Engagement

Code of Conduct


Community Engagement


Organizational Commitment to Community Engagement

There are a lot of different kinds of communities we might use to answer this, but here are some relevant pages for a few key types of communities.

Our key stakeholders page defines the types of communities we aim to serve:

Our shared responsibility model page describes the kinds of roles that exist in the service and how we aim to share them with communities:

Our Open Source Strategy section describes the approach we take towards engaging with and supporting OS communities:

All of these are continually evolving, but are a good first start. See also calendars and meetings:

Engagement with Values Frameworks

We take a lot of inspiration from the Principles of Open Scholarly Infrastructure, though we have not formally audited ourselves in comparison to those criteria. This is something we'd love to do, just haven't had time yet (and feel like an external org should do the auditing, not us).

Additional Information

Organizational History

2i2c was created by its current Steering Council, who also act as its founding partners. This group roughly came from three projects that similarly operated cloud infrastructure for interactive computing:

  • The Berkeley DataHub is an institution-wide JupyterHub that was led in-part by Yuvi Panda, Chris Holdgraf, Cathryn Carson, and Fernando Perez.
  • The Syzygy project ( is a network of JupyterHubs for Canadian universities that was led in-part by Jim Colliander.
  • The Pangeo project ( is a community platform for Big Data geoscience that is built on a JupyterHub and cloud computing, and is led in-part by Ryan Abernathey.

Each of these projects demonstrated considerable value for the communities it served, but it was also clear that this model was unsustainable for most other communities of practice due to difficulties in hiring for cloud engineering skills.

As a result, communities tended to use proprietary services that weren't aligned with the values many of us identified with (e.g., community-driven infrastructure, values-based organizations, non-profit structures, etc).

We created 2i2c in order to have a mission-driven and community-focused organization that could design and manage cloud infrastructure on behalf of communities of practice, but that framed the partnership as a collaboration based around shared responsibility and transparency rather than a pure "consumer / producer relationship". We also wanted to ensure that 2i2c would commit to making upstream contributions and support as part of its key mission, in order to avoid the extractive relationship many organizations have with open source.

Organizational Structure

Business or Ownership Model

Fiscal sponsorship (non-profit)

Full-time Staff



Primary Funding Source


Funding Needs

2i2c aims to identify a self-sustaining cost recovery model with ongoing service fees for communities that it partners with in managing cloud infrastructure. We also pursue several other funding streams to advance our mission in open infrastructure for open science.

Below are a few areas where we are actively seeking funding.

  • Cloud and service costs for one or more communities that cannot afford the full price of a monthly service.
  • Development projects to enhance open source technology that is critical for open science and education.
  • Broader community and technical support for the key open source communities in which we participate.
  • Organizational service development funding runway to explore and refine our model for sustainably serving infrastructure.